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Trumpet is a brass musical instrument sounded by lip vibration against a cup mouthpiece. Trumpet player blows air through closed lips, produce a buzzing sound into the mouthpiece and start a standing wave vibration in the air column inside the trumpet. The player can select the pitch from a range of overtones or harmonics by changing the lip aperture and tension (known as the embouchure).
The trumpet is constructed with brass tubing bent into a rough spiral. The trumpet and trombone share a roughly cylindrical bore which results in a bright, loud sound.
The technical distinction between trumpet and horn is that one-third of the tube length of a trumpet is conical and two-thirds is cylindrical, while the horn’s tube is the opposite. Both types are found throughout the world.
There are several types of trumpet. The most common is a transposing instrument pitched in B♭ with a tubing length of about 148 cm. Earlier trumpets did not have valves, but modern instruments generally have either three piston valves or, more rarely, three rotary valves. Each valve increases the length of tubing when engaged, thereby lowering the pitch.
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